Laws and institutions in Israel have been developed over the past 70 years to empower one ethnic group and dispossess another. How can such laws and institutions be changed to serve a state of all its citizens? Can we benefit from other experience, for example the transition in South Africa, to affect a shift in these institutions from exclusion to inclusion? Other issues are equally important and may prove difficult to sort out. How will a multi ethic, multi religious state deal with matters such as marriage law, divorce, death, and other civil issues . How would a unified state impact existing cultural, religious and social institutions? Would a civil law applied to all citizens be the only workable formula? Or would it be rejected out of hand by all parties? would a millet style system work? Whatever the challenges, of highest importance is to come up with a solution that safeguards the civil, religious and political rights and dignity of all inhabitants in Israel/Palestine, which is the main focus of this paper.